Source code for uuid

r"""UUID objects (universally unique identifiers) according to RFC 4122.

This module provides immutable UUID objects (class UUID) and the functions
uuid1(), uuid3(), uuid4(), uuid5() for generating version 1, 3, 4, and 5
UUIDs as specified in RFC 4122.

If all you want is a unique ID, you should probably call uuid1() or uuid4().
Note that uuid1() may compromise privacy since it creates a UUID containing
the computer's network address.  uuid4() creates a random UUID.

Typical usage:

    >>> import uuid

    # make a UUID based on the host ID and current time
    >>> uuid.uuid1()    # doctest: +SKIP

    # make a UUID using an MD5 hash of a namespace UUID and a name
    >>> uuid.uuid3(uuid.NAMESPACE_DNS, '')

    # make a random UUID
    >>> uuid.uuid4()    # doctest: +SKIP

    # make a UUID using a SHA-1 hash of a namespace UUID and a name
    >>> uuid.uuid5(uuid.NAMESPACE_DNS, '')

    # make a UUID from a string of hex digits (braces and hyphens ignored)
    >>> x = uuid.UUID('{00010203-0405-0607-0809-0a0b0c0d0e0f}')

    # convert a UUID to a string of hex digits in standard form
    >>> str(x)

    # get the raw 16 bytes of the UUID
    >>> x.bytes

    # make a UUID from a 16-byte string
    >>> uuid.UUID(bytes=x.bytes)

import os

__author__ = 'Ka-Ping Yee <>'

    'reserved for NCS compatibility', 'specified in RFC 4122',
    'reserved for Microsoft compatibility', 'reserved for future definition']

int_ = int      # The built-in int type
bytes_ = bytes  # The built-in bytes type

[docs]class UUID(object): """Instances of the UUID class represent UUIDs as specified in RFC 4122. UUID objects are immutable, hashable, and usable as dictionary keys. Converting a UUID to a string with str() yields something in the form '12345678-1234-1234-1234-123456789abc'. The UUID constructor accepts five possible forms: a similar string of hexadecimal digits, or a tuple of six integer fields (with 32-bit, 16-bit, 16-bit, 8-bit, 8-bit, and 48-bit values respectively) as an argument named 'fields', or a string of 16 bytes (with all the integer fields in big-endian order) as an argument named 'bytes', or a string of 16 bytes (with the first three fields in little-endian order) as an argument named 'bytes_le', or a single 128-bit integer as an argument named 'int'. UUIDs have these read-only attributes: bytes the UUID as a 16-byte string (containing the six integer fields in big-endian byte order) bytes_le the UUID as a 16-byte string (with time_low, time_mid, and time_hi_version in little-endian byte order) fields a tuple of the six integer fields of the UUID, which are also available as six individual attributes and two derived attributes: time_low the first 32 bits of the UUID time_mid the next 16 bits of the UUID time_hi_version the next 16 bits of the UUID clock_seq_hi_variant the next 8 bits of the UUID clock_seq_low the next 8 bits of the UUID node the last 48 bits of the UUID time the 60-bit timestamp clock_seq the 14-bit sequence number hex the UUID as a 32-character hexadecimal string int the UUID as a 128-bit integer urn the UUID as a URN as specified in RFC 4122 variant the UUID variant (one of the constants RESERVED_NCS, RFC_4122, RESERVED_MICROSOFT, or RESERVED_FUTURE) version the UUID version number (1 through 5, meaningful only when the variant is RFC_4122) """ def __init__(self, hex=None, bytes=None, bytes_le=None, fields=None, int=None, version=None): r"""Create a UUID from either a string of 32 hexadecimal digits, a string of 16 bytes as the 'bytes' argument, a string of 16 bytes in little-endian order as the 'bytes_le' argument, a tuple of six integers (32-bit time_low, 16-bit time_mid, 16-bit time_hi_version, 8-bit clock_seq_hi_variant, 8-bit clock_seq_low, 48-bit node) as the 'fields' argument, or a single 128-bit integer as the 'int' argument. When a string of hex digits is given, curly braces, hyphens, and a URN prefix are all optional. For example, these expressions all yield the same UUID: UUID('{12345678-1234-5678-1234-567812345678}') UUID('12345678123456781234567812345678') UUID('urn:uuid:12345678-1234-5678-1234-567812345678') UUID(bytes='\x12\x34\x56\x78'*4) UUID(bytes_le='\x78\x56\x34\x12\x34\x12\x78\x56' + '\x12\x34\x56\x78\x12\x34\x56\x78') UUID(fields=(0x12345678, 0x1234, 0x5678, 0x12, 0x34, 0x567812345678)) UUID(int=0x12345678123456781234567812345678) Exactly one of 'hex', 'bytes', 'bytes_le', 'fields', or 'int' must be given. The 'version' argument is optional; if given, the resulting UUID will have its variant and version set according to RFC 4122, overriding the given 'hex', 'bytes', 'bytes_le', 'fields', or 'int'. """ if [hex, bytes, bytes_le, fields, int].count(None) != 4: raise TypeError('one of the hex, bytes, bytes_le, fields, ' 'or int arguments must be given') if hex is not None: hex = hex.replace('urn:', '').replace('uuid:', '') hex = hex.strip('{}').replace('-', '') if len(hex) != 32: raise ValueError('badly formed hexadecimal UUID string') int = int_(hex, 16) if bytes_le is not None: if len(bytes_le) != 16: raise ValueError('bytes_le is not a 16-char string') bytes = (bytes_le[4-1::-1] + bytes_le[6-1:4-1:-1] + bytes_le[8-1:6-1:-1] + bytes_le[8:]) if bytes is not None: if len(bytes) != 16: raise ValueError('bytes is not a 16-char string') assert isinstance(bytes, bytes_), repr(bytes) int = int_.from_bytes(bytes, byteorder='big') if fields is not None: if len(fields) != 6: raise ValueError('fields is not a 6-tuple') (time_low, time_mid, time_hi_version, clock_seq_hi_variant, clock_seq_low, node) = fields if not 0 <= time_low < 1<<32: raise ValueError('field 1 out of range (need a 32-bit value)') if not 0 <= time_mid < 1<<16: raise ValueError('field 2 out of range (need a 16-bit value)') if not 0 <= time_hi_version < 1<<16: raise ValueError('field 3 out of range (need a 16-bit value)') if not 0 <= clock_seq_hi_variant < 1<<8: raise ValueError('field 4 out of range (need an 8-bit value)') if not 0 <= clock_seq_low < 1<<8: raise ValueError('field 5 out of range (need an 8-bit value)') if not 0 <= node < 1<<48: raise ValueError('field 6 out of range (need a 48-bit value)') clock_seq = (clock_seq_hi_variant << 8) | clock_seq_low int = ((time_low << 96) | (time_mid << 80) | (time_hi_version << 64) | (clock_seq << 48) | node) if int is not None: if not 0 <= int < 1<<128: raise ValueError('int is out of range (need a 128-bit value)') if version is not None: if not 1 <= version <= 5: raise ValueError('illegal version number') # Set the variant to RFC 4122. int &= ~(0xc000 << 48) int |= 0x8000 << 48 # Set the version number. int &= ~(0xf000 << 64) int |= version << 76 self.__dict__['int'] = int def __eq__(self, other): if isinstance(other, UUID): return == return NotImplemented # Q. What's the value of being able to sort UUIDs? # A. Use them as keys in a B-Tree or similar mapping. def __lt__(self, other): if isinstance(other, UUID): return < return NotImplemented def __gt__(self, other): if isinstance(other, UUID): return > return NotImplemented def __le__(self, other): if isinstance(other, UUID): return <= return NotImplemented def __ge__(self, other): if isinstance(other, UUID): return >= return NotImplemented def __hash__(self): return hash( def __int__(self): return def __repr__(self): return '%s(%r)' % (self.__class__.__name__, str(self)) def __setattr__(self, name, value): raise TypeError('UUID objects are immutable') def __str__(self): hex = '%032x' % return '%s-%s-%s-%s-%s' % ( hex[:8], hex[8:12], hex[12:16], hex[16:20], hex[20:]) @property def bytes(self): return, 'big') @property def bytes_le(self): bytes = self.bytes return (bytes[4-1::-1] + bytes[6-1:4-1:-1] + bytes[8-1:6-1:-1] + bytes[8:]) @property def fields(self): return (self.time_low, self.time_mid, self.time_hi_version, self.clock_seq_hi_variant, self.clock_seq_low, self.node) @property def time_low(self): return >> 96 @property def time_mid(self): return ( >> 80) & 0xffff @property def time_hi_version(self): return ( >> 64) & 0xffff @property def clock_seq_hi_variant(self): return ( >> 56) & 0xff @property def clock_seq_low(self): return ( >> 48) & 0xff @property def time(self): return (((self.time_hi_version & 0x0fff) << 48) | (self.time_mid << 32) | self.time_low) @property def clock_seq(self): return (((self.clock_seq_hi_variant & 0x3f) << 8) | self.clock_seq_low) @property def node(self): return & 0xffffffffffff @property def hex(self): return '%032x' % @property def urn(self): return 'urn:uuid:' + str(self) @property def variant(self): if not & (0x8000 << 48): return RESERVED_NCS elif not & (0x4000 << 48): return RFC_4122 elif not & (0x2000 << 48): return RESERVED_MICROSOFT else: return RESERVED_FUTURE @property def version(self): # The version bits are only meaningful for RFC 4122 UUIDs. if self.variant == RFC_4122: return int(( >> 76) & 0xf)
def _popen(command, *args): import os, shutil, subprocess executable = shutil.which(command) if executable is None: path = os.pathsep.join(('/sbin', '/usr/sbin')) executable = shutil.which(command, path=path) if executable is None: return None # LC_ALL=C to ensure English output, stderr=DEVNULL to prevent output # on stderr (Note: we don't have an example where the words we search # for are actually localized, but in theory some system could do so.) env = dict(os.environ) env['LC_ALL'] = 'C' proc = subprocess.Popen((executable,) + args, stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.DEVNULL, env=env) return proc def _find_mac(command, args, hw_identifiers, get_index): try: proc = _popen(command, *args.split()) if not proc: return with proc: for line in proc.stdout: words = line.lower().rstrip().split() for i in range(len(words)): if words[i] in hw_identifiers: try: word = words[get_index(i)] mac = int(word.replace(b':', b''), 16) if mac: return mac except (ValueError, IndexError): # Virtual interfaces, such as those provided by # VPNs, do not have a colon-delimited MAC address # as expected, but a 16-byte HWAddr separated by # dashes. These should be ignored in favor of a # real MAC address pass except OSError: pass def _ifconfig_getnode(): """Get the hardware address on Unix by running ifconfig.""" # This works on Linux ('' or '-a'), Tru64 ('-av'), but not all Unixes. keywords = (b'hwaddr', b'ether', b'address:', b'lladdr') for args in ('', '-a', '-av'): mac = _find_mac('ifconfig', args, keywords, lambda i: i+1) if mac: return mac def _ip_getnode(): """Get the hardware address on Unix by running ip.""" # This works on Linux with iproute2. mac = _find_mac('ip', 'link', [b'link/ether'], lambda i: i+1) if mac: return mac def _arp_getnode(): """Get the hardware address on Unix by running arp.""" import os, socket try: ip_addr = socket.gethostbyname(socket.gethostname()) except OSError: return None # Try getting the MAC addr from arp based on our IP address (Solaris). mac = _find_mac('arp', '-an', [os.fsencode(ip_addr)], lambda i: -1) if mac: return mac # This works on OpenBSD mac = _find_mac('arp', '-an', [os.fsencode(ip_addr)], lambda i: i+1) if mac: return mac # This works on Linux, FreeBSD and NetBSD mac = _find_mac('arp', '-an', [os.fsencode('(%s)' % ip_addr)], lambda i: i+2) if mac: return mac def _lanscan_getnode(): """Get the hardware address on Unix by running lanscan.""" # This might work on HP-UX. return _find_mac('lanscan', '-ai', [b'lan0'], lambda i: 0) def _netstat_getnode(): """Get the hardware address on Unix by running netstat.""" # This might work on AIX, Tru64 UNIX and presumably on IRIX. try: proc = _popen('netstat', '-ia') if not proc: return with proc: words = proc.stdout.readline().rstrip().split() try: i = words.index(b'Address') except ValueError: return for line in proc.stdout: try: words = line.rstrip().split() word = words[i] if len(word) == 17 and word.count(b':') == 5: mac = int(word.replace(b':', b''), 16) if mac: return mac except (ValueError, IndexError): pass except OSError: pass def _ipconfig_getnode(): """Get the hardware address on Windows by running ipconfig.exe.""" import os, re, subprocess dirs = ['', r'c:\windows\system32', r'c:\winnt\system32'] try: import ctypes buffer = ctypes.create_string_buffer(300) ctypes.windll.kernel32.GetSystemDirectoryA(buffer, 300) dirs.insert(0, buffer.value.decode('mbcs')) except: pass for dir in dirs: try: proc = subprocess.Popen([os.path.join(dir, 'ipconfig'), '/all'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE, encoding="oem") except OSError: continue with proc: for line in proc.stdout: value = line.split(':')[-1].strip().lower() if re.fullmatch('(?:[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]-){5}[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]', value): return int(value.replace('-', ''), 16) def _netbios_getnode(): """Get the hardware address on Windows using NetBIOS calls. See for details.""" import win32wnet, netbios ncb = netbios.NCB() ncb.Command = netbios.NCBENUM ncb.Buffer = adapters = netbios.LANA_ENUM() adapters._pack() if win32wnet.Netbios(ncb) != 0: return adapters._unpack() for i in range(adapters.length): ncb.Reset() ncb.Command = netbios.NCBRESET ncb.Lana_num = ord(adapters.lana[i]) if win32wnet.Netbios(ncb) != 0: continue ncb.Reset() ncb.Command = netbios.NCBASTAT ncb.Lana_num = ord(adapters.lana[i]) ncb.Callname = '*'.ljust(16) ncb.Buffer = status = netbios.ADAPTER_STATUS() if win32wnet.Netbios(ncb) != 0: continue status._unpack() bytes = status.adapter_address[:6] if len(bytes) != 6: continue return int.from_bytes(bytes, 'big') # Thanks to Thomas Heller for ctypes and for his help with its use here. # If ctypes is available, use it to find system routines for UUID generation. # XXX This makes the module non-thread-safe! _uuid_generate_time = _UuidCreate = None try: import ctypes, ctypes.util import sys # The uuid_generate_* routines are provided by libuuid on at least # Linux and FreeBSD, and provided by libc on Mac OS X. _libnames = ['uuid'] if not sys.platform.startswith('win'): _libnames.append('c') for libname in _libnames: try: lib = ctypes.CDLL(ctypes.util.find_library(libname)) except Exception: continue if hasattr(lib, 'uuid_generate_time'): _uuid_generate_time = lib.uuid_generate_time break del _libnames # The uuid_generate_* functions are broken on MacOS X 10.5, as noted # in issue #8621 the function generates the same sequence of values # in the parent process and all children created using fork (unless # those children use exec as well). # # Assume that the uuid_generate functions are broken from 10.5 onward, # the test can be adjusted when a later version is fixed. if sys.platform == 'darwin': if int(os.uname().release.split('.')[0]) >= 9: _uuid_generate_time = None # On Windows prior to 2000, UuidCreate gives a UUID containing the # hardware address. On Windows 2000 and later, UuidCreate makes a # random UUID and UuidCreateSequential gives a UUID containing the # hardware address. These routines are provided by the RPC runtime. # NOTE: at least on Tim's WinXP Pro SP2 desktop box, while the last # 6 bytes returned by UuidCreateSequential are fixed, they don't appear # to bear any relationship to the MAC address of any network device # on the box. try: lib = ctypes.windll.rpcrt4 except: lib = None _UuidCreate = getattr(lib, 'UuidCreateSequential', getattr(lib, 'UuidCreate', None)) except: pass def _unixdll_getnode(): """Get the hardware address on Unix using ctypes.""" _buffer = ctypes.create_string_buffer(16) _uuid_generate_time(_buffer) return UUID(bytes=bytes_(_buffer.raw)).node def _windll_getnode(): """Get the hardware address on Windows using ctypes.""" _buffer = ctypes.create_string_buffer(16) if _UuidCreate(_buffer) == 0: return UUID(bytes=bytes_(_buffer.raw)).node def _random_getnode(): """Get a random node ID, with eighth bit set as suggested by RFC 4122.""" import random return random.getrandbits(48) | 0x010000000000 _node = None _NODE_GETTERS_WIN32 = [_windll_getnode, _netbios_getnode, _ipconfig_getnode] _NODE_GETTERS_UNIX = [_unixdll_getnode, _ifconfig_getnode, _ip_getnode, _arp_getnode, _lanscan_getnode, _netstat_getnode] def getnode(): """Get the hardware address as a 48-bit positive integer. The first time this runs, it may launch a separate program, which could be quite slow. If all attempts to obtain the hardware address fail, we choose a random 48-bit number with its eighth bit set to 1 as recommended in RFC 4122. """ global _node if _node is not None: return _node import sys if sys.platform == 'win32': getters = _NODE_GETTERS_WIN32 else: getters = _NODE_GETTERS_UNIX for getter in getters + [_random_getnode]: try: _node = getter() except: continue if (_node is not None) and (0 <= _node < (1 << 48)): return _node assert False, '_random_getnode() returned invalid value: {}'.format(_node) _last_timestamp = None def uuid1(node=None, clock_seq=None): """Generate a UUID from a host ID, sequence number, and the current time. If 'node' is not given, getnode() is used to obtain the hardware address. If 'clock_seq' is given, it is used as the sequence number; otherwise a random 14-bit sequence number is chosen.""" # When the system provides a version-1 UUID generator, use it (but don't # use UuidCreate here because its UUIDs don't conform to RFC 4122). if _uuid_generate_time and node is clock_seq is None: _buffer = ctypes.create_string_buffer(16) _uuid_generate_time(_buffer) return UUID(bytes=bytes_(_buffer.raw)) global _last_timestamp import time nanoseconds = int(time.time() * 1e9) # 0x01b21dd213814000 is the number of 100-ns intervals between the # UUID epoch 1582-10-15 00:00:00 and the Unix epoch 1970-01-01 00:00:00. timestamp = int(nanoseconds/100) + 0x01b21dd213814000 if _last_timestamp is not None and timestamp <= _last_timestamp: timestamp = _last_timestamp + 1 _last_timestamp = timestamp if clock_seq is None: import random clock_seq = random.getrandbits(14) # instead of stable storage time_low = timestamp & 0xffffffff time_mid = (timestamp >> 32) & 0xffff time_hi_version = (timestamp >> 48) & 0x0fff clock_seq_low = clock_seq & 0xff clock_seq_hi_variant = (clock_seq >> 8) & 0x3f if node is None: node = getnode() return UUID(fields=(time_low, time_mid, time_hi_version, clock_seq_hi_variant, clock_seq_low, node), version=1) def uuid3(namespace, name): """Generate a UUID from the MD5 hash of a namespace UUID and a name.""" from hashlib import md5 hash = md5(namespace.bytes + bytes(name, "utf-8")).digest() return UUID(bytes=hash[:16], version=3)
[docs]def uuid4(): """Generate a random UUID.""" return UUID(bytes=os.urandom(16), version=4)
def uuid5(namespace, name): """Generate a UUID from the SHA-1 hash of a namespace UUID and a name.""" from hashlib import sha1 hash = sha1(namespace.bytes + bytes(name, "utf-8")).digest() return UUID(bytes=hash[:16], version=5) # The following standard UUIDs are for use with uuid3() or uuid5(). NAMESPACE_DNS = UUID('6ba7b810-9dad-11d1-80b4-00c04fd430c8') NAMESPACE_URL = UUID('6ba7b811-9dad-11d1-80b4-00c04fd430c8') NAMESPACE_OID = UUID('6ba7b812-9dad-11d1-80b4-00c04fd430c8') NAMESPACE_X500 = UUID('6ba7b814-9dad-11d1-80b4-00c04fd430c8')